(Elliot Berkman and Nicole Giuliani, UO Psychology)
- This study examines the neural correlates of reframing
the primary reward associated with approaching high
fat, high calorie foods. In the scanner, participants'
regulation will be assessed using a modified cognitive
reappraisal task that asks them to reframe the way
they view pictures of these foods. After the scan
session, participants will be asked to either monitor
their intake of a frequently-craved high fat, high
calorie food or to monitor and restrict their intake
of that food. With these data, we will test the
hypothesis that neural activation associated with
craving regulation predicts real-world food regulation
(Eric Stice and Paul Rohde, Oregon Research Institute)
- We have developed and implemented an eating disorder
prevention program involving dissonance-inducing
activities that reduces thin-ideal internalization.
We are now gathering pilot data before and after
the dissonance program to test the hypothesis that
reductions in thin-ideal internalization are associated
with change in brain and behavioral responses to
beauty-related and thin-ideal related cues. We will
also examine whether there are differences in neural
responses to these cues in those participating in
the program versus a control group.
Pilot Study (Phil Fisher, UO Psychology)
- This pilot project examines the effects of prenatal
polysubstance exposure on adolescent brain function.
We are specifically interested in alterations to
regions of the brain involved in reward processing
and executive function. We are recruiting teens
with and without prenatal polysubstance exposure
from the Three Generations Study (3GS). 3GS is a
NIDA funded longitudinal study of parenting practices
of men who were involved in the multi-decades long
Oregon Youth Study.
(Amy Lobben, UO Geography) - This study attempts
to understand the neurological correlates of spatial
thinking. We hope to use these findings in conjunction
with behavioral experimentation to construct and
assess an ontology of spatial thinking.
(Michael Posner, UO Psychology; Michael Anderson,
Cambridge University) – The Cambridge study
involves the role of attention in suppressing association.
The participants learn picture word associations.
Some pictures are neutral, some negative. Subsequent
trials involve either remembering or suppressing
the learned associations. We examine the neural
systems involved with these processes.
X (Kyle S. Burger and Eric Stice, Oregon
Research Institute) – Growing data indicate
the neural consequences of habitually consuming
highly palatable foods parallel those seen in drug
abuse. This study aims to investigate reward-related
brain responsivity during soda intake and presentation
of soda advertisements in youth that either frequently
drink soda or do not drink soda.
Neuroscience (Scott Frey, University of Missouri)
– Current research activities in the Frey
Lab focus on furthering our understanding of the
neural bases of manual actions and exploring the
implications of these findings for improving neurorehabilitation.
At this time we are exploring experience-dependent
changes in sensory and motor areas associated with
decreased (limb amputation, congenital limb deficiency,
paralysis) or increased (training) activity.
Start (Helen Neville, UO Psychology) –
This pilot project is an extension of our research
on neuroplasticity in children. Based on results
from basic research on neuroplasticity we have developed
and implemented a training program for 3-5 year-old
preschool children and their parents. We have documented
significant improvements in several aspects of cognition
as well as on a neurophysiological measure of attention
after the eight-week training period. We are now
gathering pilot structural and DTI data before and
after the training period to test the hypothesis
that the behavioral and neurophysiological changes
we have documented are accompanied by structural
changes in grey and white matter.
Training (Elliot Berkman, UO Psychology)
– This study examines functional and structural
changes associated with long-term training to improve
self-control. Participants' self-control capacity
is assessed in several domains (e.g. motor, affect)
before and after a training or a control manipulation.
and Social Cognition (Jennifer Pfeifer, UO
Psychology) – This research focuses on the
systems in the brain that support various forms
of self-perception, social comparison, and emotion
processing, and their role in adjustment and achievement
during child and adolescent normative and atypical
Infants & fMRI
(Philip Fisher, UO Psychology) – This study
will examine neural processing of emotional stimuli
in infants from low and high conflict families.
Infants’ processing of adults’ emotional
tone of voice is conceptualized as a potential means
by which family conflict may have a direct impact
on infants’ emotional development.
Milkshake (Eric Stice, Oregon Research Institute)
– This study, funded by the National Institute
of Mental Health, aims to examine: 1) differences
in the neural circuitry related to food reward between
adolescents at high risk for weight gain and low-risk
adolescents; 2) the effects of abnormalities in
the neural circuitry related to food reward to future
weight gain and obesity onset; and 3) changes in
food reward after obesity onset.
Memory: Neural Mechanisms of Mnemonic Precision
(Ed Awh, UO Psychology; John Serences, UC San Diego)
– This project seeks to identify and describe
the neural mechanisms that enable the storage of
high-fidelity representations in visual working
memory using multivoxel pattern analysis of activity
in primary visual cortex.
Body-Mind Training (Michael Posner, UO Psychology;
Yiyuan Tang, Dalian University of Technology) –
This collaborative study seeks to replicate our
previous results in China with a larger population.
We explore the possible neural mechanisms for conscious
control of behavior and which aid in self-regulation.
Brain Injury (Li-Shan Chou, UO Human Physiology;
Ulrich Mayr, UO Psychology) – The focus of
this neurorehabilitation project is to better understand
the consequences of concussion or mild traumatic
brain injury (mTBI) on individual brain networks
related to executive function. This will be accomplished
by using fMRI to examine the pattern of brain activation
associated with a task switching paradigm in patients
with recent mTBI. Project results could enhance
the development of mTBI assessment, and provide
a useful set of tasks for improving executive functions
in these patients.
Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography
(Sergei Turovets, NeuroInformatics Center) –
Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography
(MREIT) is an imaging modality that visualizes the
electrical properties of a conductive body. A small
electrical current is injected into an object inside
a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Phase images
before and after current injection are used to map
the induced magnetic flux density. This information
can then be used to construct an image of the electrical
conductivity of the object.
EEG/fMRI (Phan Luu, Electrical Geodesics,
Inc.) – EGI is currently developing a dense-array
EEG system that can be used to acquire the EEG simultaneously
with fMRI data acquisition. The goals are to develop
an EEG system that 1) is safe to operate with the
MRI environment, 2) does not distort the MRI data
and 3) accurately captures the MRI's gradient pulses
in the EEG recordings. If these goals can be accomplished,
this MRI-compatible EEG system will advance both
basic and clinical research by allowing investigators
to leverage the spatial accuracy of MRI and temporal
resolution of EEG to understand brain functions.
Hardware Development – Members
of the Lewis Center are actively involved in
custom hardware for improved MR Imaging. more...